The environmental challenge in .NET framework Maker Denso QR Bar Code in .NET framework The environmental challenge

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The environmental challenge generate, create qr none in .net projects Csharp (which can lead to the rele QR Code ISO/IEC18004 for .NET ase of drilling fluids). Oil production activities can have an adverse impact on the environment through damage from leaking pipelines or atmospheric emissions from the flaring of gas, a by-product of oil production.

During transportation, tankers release oil into the sea in the course of pumping out bilgewater or unloading the cargo. The pollution from refineries can include the release of waste water containing oil residuals, solid waste disposal and atmospheric emissions. In addition to the ecological hazards in the course of oil operations, end-user consumption of oil products together with other fossil fuels is an important contributor to global warming (Clark 1982; Estrada et al.

1997; White 2002). Table 4.1 provides an overview of the potential environmental impact of oil companies and the potential mitigating activities.

The potential environmental impact of oil and gas operations is greatest during the production phase (see Table 4.2). However, the impact of oil and gas operations greatly varies between different locations.

In some areas, such as farmland and uncultivated bush areas, the environmental effects may be relatively insignificant. In other areas, however, oil and gas operations may leave long-term damage. For instance, in mangrove swamps, it may take two to three years for mangrove bushes to recover after their roots have been cut into, and it may take thirty years or more for mangrove trees to fully recover from a seismic survey (Frynas 2000, 158).

Environmental risks of oil and gas operations are heightened because in developing economies natural resources, including oil and gas deposits, are often located near areas of high biological diversity and high ecological vulnerability, such as rain forests, mangrove swamps and protected national parks (Austin and Sauer 2002). In this chapter, we shall not discuss environmental risks in detail, but rather evaluate the extent to which CSR can address the environmental impact of company operations..

table 4.1: Overview of environmental impact of oil companies and mitigating activities Process stage Air emissions Visual Studio .NET qr-codes Greenhouse gases Noise Waste Water Catalyst regeneration Clean fuels Cogeneration Energy efficiency Flare minimisation Fuel gas sulphur reduction Furnace NOx mitigation Waste/Water management Air emissions Greenhouse gases Light Noise Waste Water Air emissions Greenhouse gases. Design and construction Transportation End use Exploration and production Refining and processing Impact Dust Light Noise Waste Air emissions Greenhouse gases Light Noise Waste Water Mitigating activity Dust, light and qr-codes for .NET noise impact minimisation Footprint minimisation Traffic management Waste management . Drilling Double -hull tankers discharge Pipeline integrity management management Energy efficiency Gas flare minimisation Pipeline integrity management Waste/Water management Water/gas reinjection. Inventory and supply chain optimisation Underground storage tank integrity Vapour recovery Source: adapted from the Chevron website at (accessed 13 February 2008).

. The environmental challenge table 4.2: Potential environmental impact of oil production activities Production acti .net framework QR Code JIS X 0510 vity All activities Potential environmental impact Loss of vegetation/arable land Hydrological changes Disturbance of communities/flora/fauna Soil, water pollution Disturbance of communities/flora/fauna Soil, water pollution Disturbance of communities/flora/fauna Ambient air quality Acid rain Soot/heavy metal deposition Greenhouse effect Pollution/fire affecting flora Soil/surface water pollution Disturbance of communities/flora/fauna Soil/surface water pollution Disturbance of communities/flora/fauna Poor ambient air quality Ozone depletion (fire-fighting agents) Soil, water, air pollution Waste problems Soil pollution. Well operations Pipelines Separation of oil/gas/water Oil terminals Source: adapted from van Dessel 1995. Tackling the en QR Code for .NET vironmental challenge While the use of terms such as CSR and Sustainability is relatively new, oil companies were prepared to voluntarily introduce some pollution-related initiatives from at least the 1960s. Already in 1969, oil companies established an industry-wide voluntary agreement called the Tanker Owners Voluntary Agreement concerning Liability for Oil Pollution (referred to as TOVALOP), and in 1974 the Offshore Pollution Liability Agreement (referred to as OPOL) was set up to meet claims for marine pollution damage and.

Beyond Corporate Social Responsibility environmental c .net framework qr bidimensional barcode lean-up costs. Under the terms of these agreements, oil companies voluntarily accepted strict liability for pollution damage and the cost of remedial measures.

However, much of the public attention to oil companies was focused on marine pollution at the time. With the general rise in environmental awareness around the world since the 1970s, the quantity and scope of voluntary environmental initiatives have greatly increased, and the environmental agenda has widened to include broader issues such as climate change and biodiversity. As one of the key signs of environmental engagement, oil companies now provide extensive environmental reports.

Indeed, several comparative international studies have demonstrated that environmental reporting among oil and gas companies is more extensive compared with other sectors, including utilities and various branches of manufacturing, although this has partly been a result of the industry s greater environmental impact. In addition, a high percentage of oil companies use third-party verification of their environmental reports, compared with companies in most other sectors (Kolk et al. 2001).

According to the 2005 survey of CSR reporting by the consultancy firm KPMG, 16 out of 20 oil and gas companies listed among the 250 largest corporations in the world reported on corporate responsibility issues, which represented a significant increase from 58 per cent to 80 per cent between 2002 and 2005 (KPMG 2005). Steps have also been taken to create common environmental reporting standards tailored to the needs of the oil and gas sector. In 2005, the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (an organisation representing oil companies and associations from around the world) and the American Petroleum Institute (a trade association representing oil companies in the United States) issued the Oil and Gas Industry Guidance on Voluntary Sustainability Reporting .

The guidance includes six core environmental performance indicators and nine supplementary.
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