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A Philosophy of Cinematic Art in Visual Studio .NET Encoding Code 128 Code Set A in Visual Studio .NET A Philosophy of Cinematic Art

A Philosophy of Cinematic Art generate, create none none for none projects GS1 Barcodes Knowledge what people as none none we know them can do. But in thinking of her as if she had control over all the performances, as well as of other lmmaking tasks, both she and the performers must be imagined as radically di erent from the human beings with which we are familiar. To do this is to speculate on the psychologies of beings so dissimilar from the persons who actually make lms that we would warp out of all recognisable shape our understanding and appreciation of cinema.

Some of the objections both to the single author as an actual individual and as a construct, then, are rooted in the rm and fertile ground of a basic ontological di erence between literature and lm. 3.7 the multiple-authorship view refined The varieties of auteurism distinguished earlier are susceptible to further subdivisions and re nements.

To show the attractions of the multipleauthorship view, in particular its merits in enhancing critical understanding compared to the single-authorship view, it is useful brie y to develop it and to compare lms to other collaborative art forms. Two dimensions of variation may usefully be distinguished in collaborative artistic activities. The rst concerns the degree to which creative power in determining the artistic properties of a lm is centralised or dispersed.

In some lms a person or small group of persons may be the dominant collaborator (who will typically, though not always, also be a co-ordinating artist), having power by virtue of their organisational role or by the force of their artistic presence; in other lms there may be a greater di usion of power between many roughly equal collaborators. The second dimension of variation concerns the degree to which the di erent collaborators are in agreement over the aims of the lm and their role within its production. This can vary from total agreement to complete failure to agree.

The latter may produce a shambles of a lm, or may generate con icts that greatly enhance its artistic merit. The collaborators may also either be aware of, or be completely unconscious of the fact that they are in agreement or in con ict. The variations possible along these two axes, and the interactions between them, can generate complexities within lms that the single-authorship view cannot adequately theorise.

The possibility most akin to the single-authorship view of cinema is when one individual has dominant creative control over a lm. The most plausible candidates are writer-directors, such as Ingmar Bergman, Preston Sturges, Quentin Tarantino and Woody Allen. Others, such as producers (David Selznick) or stars (Mae West), may sometimes wield artistic power a circumstance that explains the endless, futile debates within the auteurist.

Cinematic authorship camp as to the none none identity of a lm s author (the disputes under dimension 4). But, as we have seen, such an individual, even when he or she exists, is not correctly characterised as the sole author of the lm. Sturges great lms at Paramount in the 1940s relied on a stock company of actors, for whom he wrote the parts, and whose performances are indispensable to the character and success of his lms.

Bergman and Allen similarly relied on a talented group of artists: the role of Sven Nykvist, Bergman s director of photography, was crucial to the look of his lms. Indeed, some of these lms features, often ascribed to the directors, are more plausibly traced to the work of other collaborators. The comic mood of Allen s lms became more serious and less kooky when Diane Keaton was replaced by Mia Farrow, a change of tone partly traceable to their di ering skills as comic actresses.

The existence of dominant collaborator lms explains why the notion of single authorship has appeared plausible to many. In other lms artistic power is more dispersed. The great musicals produced by the MGM Freed unit are testimony to the skills of a wide range of artists, all of whom stamped their hallmarks on the silver screen.

51 Or consider Blade Runner, given an initial theatrical release in 1982 and re-released in 1992 in Ridley Scott s modi ed director s cut and again in 2007 in a further modi ed director s cut, the latter two incarnations bearing witness to the ideology of single authorship. But the lm is in fact an extraordinary collaborative venture: Philip Dick s source novel; the radical reworking of that material by David Webb Peoples screenplay, stressing the futility of revenge, a theme shared with his script for Unforgiven (1992); Scott s concern with the marginalised and powerless in society, also seen in Thelma and Louise (1991); Syd Mead s marvellous visual imagining of a drenched and decayed megalopolis, half post-modern pastiche, half dystopian nightmare; Vangelis futuristic, ethereal synthesiser score; the worried helplessness of Harrison Ford s acting; and the tense bundling of danger with hopelessness conveyed in Rutger Hauer s performance the work of all these artists and many more combine synergistically to produce a cinematic masterpiece. Rather than rigidly categorising lms by their directors, lms should be multiply classi ed: by actors, cameramen, editors, composers, and so on.

The career paths of all cinematic artists should be traced, showing how their work adapts to new contexts, demonstrating how each interaction alters the ingredients and avours of the cinematic potpourri. Sometimes. See the intervi ews with the participants in the An American in Paris ballet in Donald Knox, The Magic Factory..
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