The INTSINT Model in Software Deploy Denso QR Bar Code in Software The INTSINT Model

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9.3.4 The INTSINT Model use software qr code 2d barcode creator torender qr code with software bar code The INTSINT model of Software qrcode Hirst et al [212], [213], [211], was developed in an attempt to provide a comprehensive and multi-lingual transcription system for intonation. The model can be seen as theory-neutral in that it was designed to transcribe the intonation of utterances as a way of annotating databases and thereby providing the raw data upon which intonational theories could be developed. Hirst has described the development of INTSINT as an attempt to design an equivalent of IPA for intonation.

As stated in Section 6.10, there is no such thing as completely theory neutral model as all models make some assumptions. Nevertheless, INTSINT certainly ful lls its main goals of allowing a phonetic transcription of an utterance to be made without necessarily deciding which theory or model of intonation will be subsequently used.

INTSINT describes an utterance s intonation by a sequence of labels each of which represents a target point. These target points are de ned either by reference to the speaker s pitch range,. Synthesis of Prosody in which case they a Software QR re marked Top (T), Mid (M) or Bottom (B), or by reference to the previous target point, in which case they are marked Higher (H), Same (S) or Lower (L). In addition, accents can be marked as Upstepped (S) or Downstepped (D). Hirst [212] describes this system in detail and shows how it can be applied to all the major languages.

Several algorithms have also been developed for extracting the labels automatically from the acoustics and for synthesizing F0 contours from the labels2 . Applications of this model to synthesis include Veronis et al [475]..

9.3.5 The Fujisaki model and Superimpositional Models Fujisaki s intonatio Software QR Code 2d barcode n model [166] takes a quite different approach to the models previously discussed in that it aims for an accurate description of the F0 contour which simulates the human production mechanism. Fujisaki s model was developed from the lter method rst proposed by Ohman [335]. In the model, intonation is composed of two types of components, the phrase and the accent.

The input to the model is in the form of impulses, used to produce phrase shapes, and step functions which produce accent shapes. This mechanism consists of two second order critically damped FIR lters (these are introduced fully in Section 10.4).

One lter is used for the phrase component, the other for the accent component. The F0 contour can be represented by equations 9.1, 9.

2 and 9.3..

ln F0 (t) = ln Fmin + A pi G pi (t T0i ) + Aa j (Ga j (t T1 j ) Ga j (t T2 j )). i=1 j=1 (9.1). where G pi (t) = 2t qr bidimensional barcode for None e it for t 0 i 0 for t < 0 (9.2). and Ga j (t) =. min[1 (1 + jt)e j t , ] for t 0 0 for t < 0 (9.3). In addition to being qr bidimensional barcode for None an expert on multi-lingual intonation, Hirst is also know for being able to do a particularly ne rendition of Don t Cry For Me Argentina .. Section 9.3. Intonation Theories and Models time (b) Amplitude time Figure 9.10 Three ph rase components of differing amplitude. Graph (a) shows the path of the F0 contour, while graph (b) shows the input impulses.

. Fmin I J A pi Aa j T0i T1 j T2 j i j baseline number of p hrase components number of accent components magnitude of the ith phrase command magnitude of the jth accent command timing of the ith phrase command onset of the jth accent command end of the jth accent command natural angular frequency of the phrase control mechanism of the ith phrase command natural angular frequency of the accent control mechanism of the jth accent command a parameter to indicate the ceiling level of the accent component.. Although the mathema Software qrcode tics may look a little complicated, the model is in fact very simple. Each phrase is initiated with an impulse, which when passed through the lter, makes the F0 contour rise to a local maximum value and then slowly decay. Successive phrases are added to the tails of the previous ones, thus creating the type of pattern seen in gure 9.

10. The time constant, , governs how quickly the phrase reaches its maximum value, and how quickly it falls off after this. Accents are initiated by using step functions.

When these step functions are passed through the lter they produce the responses shown in gure 9.11. The accent time constant, , is usually.

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