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3: Productivity use none none generating toattach none for none USS Codabar of token-blo none none cking, since one can assume that, for many speakers, the word decency is part of their lexicon, and is therefore capable of token-blocking. To summarize our discussion of the notion of type-blocking, we have seen that it rests on false assumptions about the meaning of putatively rival affixes and that it cannot account for the empirical facts. The idea of type-blocking should therefore be abandoned.

We have, however, also seen that another kind of blocking, namely tokenblocking, can occur and does occur, when an individual stored lexical item prevents the formation of complex rival synonymous form.. 6. Summary. In this chap none none ter we have looked at what it means when we say that a word-formation process is productive or not. The productivity of a given affix was loosely defined as the possibility to coin a new complex word with this affix. We have seen that possible words need to conform to the word-formation rules of a language whereas actual words are often idiosyncratic.

We have then discussed how complex words are stored and accessed in the mental lexicon, which is crucial for an understanding of the notion of productivity in word-formation. Productive processes are characterized by many low-frequency words and thus do not depend on the storage of many individual words, whereas unproductive processes show a preponderance of high-frequency forms, i.e.

stored words. Differences in productivity between affixes raise the question of productivity restrictions. We have seen that apart from contraints on usage, structural constraints play an important role in word-formation.

Possible words of a given morphological category need to conform to very specific phonological, morphological, semantic and syntactic requirements. These requirements restrict the set of potential complex words, thus constraining productivity. Finally, token-blocking was discussed, which is a general psycholinguistic mechanism which prevents complex forms from being formed if a synonymous word is already present in the speaker s lexicon.

. 3: Productivity In the next none for none chapter we will turn to the details of affixational processes in English and see how we can implement the insights of the foregoing chapter to gain a deeper understanding of the properties of these processes. Further reading. Further Reading Storage of a none for none nd access to complex words in the lexicon are explained in more detail in Baayen (1993), Frauenfelder and Schreuder (1991). For corpus-based studies of the productivity of English affixes see Baayen and Lieber (1991), Baayen and Renouf (1996), Plag (1999: chapter 5), or Plag et al. (1999).

The methodological problems involved in corpus-based analyses of derivational morphology are discussed in considerable detail in Plag (1999: chapter 5). Book-length studies of mainly structural aspects of productivity are Plag (1999) and Bauer (2001), which also contain useful summaries of the pertinent literature. For further elaboration of the psycholinguistic aspects of productivity, see Hay (2001), Hay and Baayen (2002a), (2002b).

. Exercises Basic level Exercise 3.1 none for none . This exercise is to test the hypothesis that among hapaxes there is a large proportion of neologisms.

We will use derivatives in -ize as they occur in the 20 million word Cobuild Corpus (as given in Plag 1999:279). The data below are the first 16 items from the alphabetical list of hapaxes in -ize. academicize anthologize archaize aerobicize anthropomorphize astrologize aerolize apostasized attitudinize aluminiumize arabize austrianize.

3: Productivity 86 botanize canadianize carbonize bilingualize Check these none for none hapaxes in one or two large dictionaries for verification of their status as neologisms. How many of them are listed Does your result support the hypothesis . Exercise 3.2 . Calculate the missing P measures for the following suffixes on the basis of the figures given in the following table: Frequency of affixes in the BNC (from Plag et al.

1999) and OED (from Plag 2002) V N n1 P OED neologisms -able -ful measure -ful property -ion -ish -ist -ity -ize -less -ness -wise 933 136 154 2392 491 1207 1372 658 681 2466 183 140627 2615 77316 1369116 7745 98823 371747 100496 28340 106957 2091 311 60 22 524 262 354 341 212 272 943 128 0.0088 0.061 0.

0021 0.0022 0.023 0.

00028 185 22 14 625 101 552 487 273 103 279 12. Exercise 3.3 none none . The nominal suffixes -ation, -ication, -ion, -ance, -al, -age, -y and -ment are roughly synonymous.

The obvious question is which mechanisms govern their distribution, i.e. which verb takes which suffix.

We will try to answer this question only for a subset of verbs, namely those derived by the suffixation of -ify, -ize, and -ate. Consider the data.
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