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Understanding and Achieving Next-Generation Wireless Security 137 using none tomake none for web,windows applicationhow to generate bar code in c# 6.5 WPA2: Under the Covers Visual Basic and Visual C# WPA was provi ded as an interim solution, and it had a number of major constraints. WPA2 was designed as a future-proof solution based on lessons learned by WEP implementers. Motorola is a key contributor and proponent of the WPA2 standard, and provides nextgeneration products based on this standard.

WPA2 will be a durable standard for many reasons. One of the most important choices was that of the encryption algorithm. In October 2000, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) designated the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) as a robust successor to the aging Data Encryption Standard.

AES is an extremely welldocumented international encryption algorithm free of royalty or patent, with extensive public review. WPA2, like WPA, supports two modes of security, sometimes referred to as home user and corporate. In home user mode a pre-shared secret is used, much like WEP or WAP.

Access points and clients are all manually configured to use the same secret of up to 64 ASCII characters, such as this_is_our_secret_password. An actual 256-bit randomly generated number may also be used, but this is difficult to enter manually into client configurations. The corporate security is based on 802.

1X, the EAP authentication framework (including RADIUS), one of several EAP types (such as EAP-TLS, which provides a much stronger authentication system), and secure key distribution. This paper discusses corporate security. Home user security introduces the same security problems present in WEP and WPA-PSK.

6.5.1 WPA2 and 802.

1X While 802.1X as a standard preceded 802.11i, it is proving to be a key enabler for secure and flexible wireless networks, allowing for client authentication, wireless network authentication, key distribution and the pre-authentication necessary for roaming.

In using 802.1X in conjunction with 802.11i, it is strongly suggested to use EAP as a framework for authentication, and use an EAP type for the actual authentication that provides the optimal balance between cost, manageability and risk mitigation.

Most often an 802.1X setup uses EAP-TLS for authentication between the wireless client (supplicant) and the access point (authenticator). In theory, several options may replace EAP-TLS, but in practice this is rare.

The 802.1X authentication protocol as deployed with 802.11i provides a number of services: Capabilities negotiation between the client and wireless network provider.

Client authentication to the wireless network provider. Authentication of the wireless network provider to the client. A key distribution mechanism for encryption of wireless traffic.

Pre-authentication for roaming clients.. In wired 802. none none 1X, the network port is in a controlled state prior to authentication. But on wireless networks, no such port exists until the client connects and associates to the.

138 Understanding and Achieving Next-Generation Wireless Security wireless acce none none ss point. This immediately poses a problem, since beacon packets and probe request/response packets cannot be protected or authenticated. Fortunately, access to this data is not very useful for attackers, other than for potentially causing denial-of-service attacks, and for identifying wireless clients and access points by their hardware MAC addresses.

An 802.1X wireless setup consists of three main components: Supplicant (the wireless client). Authenticator (the access point).

Authentication server (usually a RADIUS server).. The supplican t initially connects to the authenticator, as it would to a WEP- or WPAprotected network. Once this connection is established, the supplicant has in effect a network link to the authenticator (access point). The supplicant can then use this link to authenticate and gain further network access.

The supplicant and authenticator first negotiate capabilities. These consist of three items: The pairwise cipher suite, used to encrypt unicast (point-to-point) traffic. The group cipher suite, used to encrypt multicast and broadcast (point-to-multiplepoints) traffic.

The use of either a pre-shared key (PSK, or home user security, using a shared secret) or 802.1X authentication..

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