Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe in .NET Writer USS Code 128 in .NET Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe

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Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe using barcode drawer for visual .net control to generate, create code-128 image in visual .net applications. iPhone OS by the harmonization Code 128 for .NET of German and Greek, come together in Gessner s comparative discussion of the Germanic languages. This was fuller and more important than any that had preceded it: the chapter De lingua Germanica takes up a fth of Mithridates.

132 It includes a discussion of dialect variation within German and the competing claims of the local varieties of different cities Leipzig, Augsburg and Basel to be regarded as the best German, and extends backwards in time to Old High German.133 As might be expected from this attention to historical material, Gessner also took an interest in Gothic, reporting the existence of the Germanic-speaking Gothic communities on the Black Sea.134 In 1563 he received specimens of Gothic material, deriving from the Codex Argenteus, from two correspondents, and expressed the hope that he might add them to a new edition.

135 The making of the rst adequate modern dictionary of German was a project in which Gessner had a part as well, and he brought both his comparative interests and his interests in early texts to it. This dictionary was Die Teutsch Spraach of Josua Maaler (Pictorius), published in 1561. As we have seen, there were German dictionaries of a kind before Die Teutsch Spraach.

Although the medieval tradition represented by the Vocabularius ex quo had ended by the 1560s, it had its successors. The successful Latin German dictionary of the Strasburg schoolmaster Petrus Dasypodius (Peter Hasenfuss), who had been one of Gessner s teachers, made humanistic lexicography that drew on the work of Calepino, Robert Estienne and others widely available in German-speaking schoolrooms from 1535 onwards; it was supplemented in 1536 with a German Latin section.136 It was followed by the collaborative work of the Zurich scholars Petrus Cholinus (Colinus, Choeli) and Johannes Frisius, whose German version of Robert Estienne s Dictionarium latinogallicum, the Dictionarium latino germanicum, was published in 1541, followed after seven years by a Dictionariolum puerorum tribus linguis adapted by Frisius from Estienne s Dictionariolum puerorum latinogallicum and after another eight by Frisius Novum dictionariolum puerorum latinogermanicum et.

132 133 134 135. See Metcalf, Konrad .NET code 128 barcode Gesner s views on the Germanic languages and Peters, Einleitung 33 43. Peters, Einleitung 50; Hertenstein, Joachim von Watt 51.

Gessner, Mithridates fos. 27v, 43r v, discussed Brough, Goths and the concept of Gothic 68ff. See Gessner s letters of 22 April and 11 August 1563 to Gassar in Burmeister, Achilles Pirmin Gassar iii:230 2 at 231 and iii:240 2 at 240.

For the sources of Dasypodius dictionary, see de Smet, Einfuhrung [viii] [ix]. Claes, Bibliographisches Verzeichnis 90 (item 341) notes 29 sixteenth-century editions. Gessner acknowledges him as a former teacher in his Praefatio in Maaler, Teutsch Spraach sigs.

*3r *7v at *7r, Petrus Dasypodius . . .

praeceptor olim meus .. Germany and the Netherlands 1500 1618 germanicolatinum, whi ANSI/AIM Code 128 for .NET ch ran to thirty-seven further editions from 1568 to 1750.137 Frisius work was itself used by lexicographers in England (notably Thomas Cooper) and the Low Countries.

138 Cholinus and Frisius were concerned to present a widely acceptable variety of High German in their dictionary, just as Luther had been in his Bible translation, and wrote that their aim was to use the language which is most widely received in upper Germany [as opposed to the Netherlands and the northern regions of Germany], and is used most generally at once by the Swiss and the Germans, so that when this book comes into general use, we shall not appear to have been biassed towards the dialect of any particular community .139 And they were concerned also to promote the merits of German, the riches in which it is more blessed than all other languages , telling their reader that it excelled both Greek and, a fortiori, Latin.140 Gessner contributed to the Dictionarium latinogermanicum, and it was published by his preferred publisher, Christoph Froschauer of Zurich.

Maaler s Die Teutsch Spraach came from the same publisher as a conclusion and a crown to the Zurich family of dictionaries from Froschauer s of cina , as Gilbert de Smet has put it with a dedication to Gessner and Frisius which identi es them repeatedly as Maaler s prae ceptores and a foreword by Gessner himself.141 Die Teutsch Spraach differs from its predecessors because it is a German Latin dictionary, made in patriae linguae laudem , designed to show off the riches of the German language. It runs to 536 pages in double columns, with about 11,000 entries, 13,000 subentries, and 30,000 proverbs and other examples.

142 The last of these features was a result of Robert Estienne s interest in phraseology, for Maaler s dictionary was substantially indebted as was frankly acknowledged in Gessner s foreword to the work of Frisius and thence of Estienne. As a Latin dictionary, then, it was unoriginal, but. 138 139. 140 141. There were two editio ns of the Dictionarium latinogermanicum in 1541, one in octavo and one in folio, followed by enlarged editions in 1556, 1568 and 1574 (Claes, Bibliographisches Verzeichnis 102, items 386 7); for Frisius Dictionariolum puerorum (1548), see ibid. 110, item 416, and for his Novum dictionariolum (1556), see ibid. 120 1, item 460, and Jones, German lexicography 362 73, items 628 48 and note to item 648.

For Cooper and Frisius, see Starnes, Robert Estienne s in uence on lexicography 104 5. Cholinus and Frisius, Dictionarium latinogermanicum, quoted de Smet, Einfuhrung in Maaler, Teutsch Spraach (1971) v* xxv* at ix*, lingua in Germania superiori usu maxime recepta, et Helvetijs simul ac Germanis communissima: ita ut neutrius gentis idiomati, quando communis liber futurus esset, nimium addicti videremur . Ibid.

ix*, diuitias . . .

quibus est omnibus alijs linguis felicior . Maaler, Teutsch Spraach sig. *2r; de Smet, Einfuhrung in Maaler, Teutsch Spraach (1971) x*, als Abschlu und Kronung der Zuricher Worterbuchfamilie aus Froschauers Of cina .

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