Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe in .NET Access Code 128 Code Set C in .NET Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe

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Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe using .net toreceive code-128c in web,windows application Microsoft Official Website a place wh .NET Code 128 ere foreign ambassadors were kept waiting before audiences with the Sultan and copied it carefully into his journal.175 At the beginning of the twentieth century, the scholar preparing a modern edition of the journal was puzzled by the inscription.

The best guess that he could make was that it looked vaguely runic, and so he sent a photograph of it to Copenhagen, for the attention of the philologist Vilhelm Thomsen, who identi ed it at once as an example of a particularly uncommon alphabet, that formerly used by the Szekely, a Hungarian people resident in Transylvania. The alphabet was used in this case to baf e inquisitive Turkish courtiers, since the sense of the inscription is not complimentary to the Sultan.176 Constantinople was, then, a centre for members of some very unusual linguistic groups the editor of Dernschwam was baf ed partly because he knew that the inscription could have been in any one of a hundred different languages.

Great cities are usually strongly multilingual, but sixteenth-century Constantinople was more so than most. Hence Busbecq s own discovery. He had heard that a Germanic language, perhaps that of the Goths, was spoken in the Crimea, and had encouraged his servants to locate any of its speakers if they could.

Eventually his enquiries bore fruit: a member of the Gothic-speaking ethnic group was introduced to him. Although this man did not actually speak Gothic himself, he was accompanied by another who, although of a different ethnicity, had learned some of the language, and could be interviewed. It was immediately evident to Busbecq that the language to which his informant was introducing him had points in common with his own, Dutch.

He could not be sure of its identity, remarking that whether they are Goths or Saxons I cannot decide as late as the end of the eighteenth century, the zoologist and collector of languages Peter Simon Pallas refused to believe that the language could be Gothic but his record was carefully enough made for modern scholars to be sure that the language variety he heard was Gothic, although in a dialect that differed from that of the Codex Argenteus.177 Busbecq recorded about eighty words from this interview, together with an enigmatic fragment of song. These were listed in glossary form in the printed text of his account of this meeting.

The words were divided. 175 176. Dernschwam Code 128 Code Set B for .NET , Tagebuch 40. For the decipherment by Thomsen, see Babinger, Ein schriftgeschichtliches Ratsel and Pedersen, Discovery of language 201 3; see also Diringer with Regensburger, The alphabet i:246 7.

Busbecq, Legationis turcicae epistolae quatuor fos. 135r 137r (I quote fo. 136v, Hi Gothi an Saxones sint, non possum diiudicare ), discussed by Stearns, Crimean Gothic, esp.

37 48, with transcription and translation 9 15 and facsimile reproduction plates ii vi; for Pallas comment, see ibid. 19 20 at 20; for the relationship of Crimean and Biblical Gothic, see ibid. 118 20.

. Germany and the Netherlands 1500 1618 into three barcode code 128 for .NET categories. First came a list of words which Busbecq thought had evident Dutch cognates: tag day , plut blood , stul stool , and so on (cf.

Dutch dag, bloed and stoel ). Then came a list of words which Busbecq believed to lack such cognates, beginning with iel life or health . Then, nally, came a short account of the cardinal numbers, whose relationship with Dutch was obviously close, and in one detail gratifyingly close to Busbecq s own dialect, that of Flanders: Being told to count he did so thus: Ita, tua, tria, fyder, fynf, seis, sevene, as we Flemings do.

For you men of Brabant, who claim to speak in the Germanic way, are in the habit of . . .

ridiculing us as if our pronunciation of that word which you pronounce seven offended against good taste. 178 The inference is clear whether its speakers were actually Goths or Saxons, this language clearly represented a very old tradition, and it agreed with Flemish, not Brabantine, usage, prestigious as the latter might be.179 Busbecq s fourth Turkish letter, in which the Gothic wordlists appear, was not written up for some years, although its Gothic wordlist must draw on notes taken on the spot, and it was not published until 1589.

180 In the following years, its importance was to be widely recognized; the wordlists were, for instance, reprinted from it by Bonaventure de Smet in 1597 and by Abraham van der Myl (van der Mijl, Mylius) in a very interesting comparative study of the Dutch language in 1612, and from de Smet by Caspar Waserus in his edition of Gessner s Mithridates in 1610.181 Such reprints continued into the eighteenth century.182 Before the Turkish letters were published, however, the rst specimen of the Gothic language, the text of the Lord s Prayer that is given in the Codex Argenteus, had already been printed, by another Dutch-speaker, Joannes Goropius Becanus (Jan van Gorp).

Goropius had been court physician to the queen of France before retiring to Antwerp, where he practised medicine, attending Christophe Plantin after the printer had been stabbed in the street near the beginning of his career. He eventually. 180 181. Busbecq, L .net framework Code 128A egationis turcicae epistolae quatuor fo. 136v, Iussus ita numerabat.

Ita, tua, tria[,] fyder, fyuf [for the convincing emendation to fynf, see Stearns, Crimean Gothic 43 4], seis, seuene, prorsus, vt nos Flandri. Nam vos Brabanti, qui vos Germanice loqui facitis . .

. nos soletis habere derisui, ac si istam vocem pronunciemus rancidius, quam vos Seuen effertis. For the prestige of the Brabantine dialect, cf.

Gessner, Mithridates fo. 39r, Brabantica lingua inter c[a]eteras Belgicas . .

. elegantior hodie habetur. For the date of composition, see von Martels, On His Majesty s service 180n65.

De Smet, ed., De literis et lingua getarum 49 53; van der Myl, Lingua belgica 47f. (for which see Metcalf, Abraham Mylius on historical linguistics) ; Waserus, Ad Mithridatem commentarius fos.

102v 111v. E.g.

, in Malmenius, Reliqui[ae] linguae Geticae 18ff..
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