Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe in .NET Deploy barcode 128 in .NET Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe

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Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe using barcode creation for visual studio .net control to generate, create code-128c image in visual studio .net applications. iOS must in fact hav Visual Studio .NET code 128 barcode e been just about the only person in the world who had a good acquaintance with Slovene, Turkish and Malagasy, even if he had the last of these at second hand informed two further works. The rst was a successor to the texts of the Lord s Prayer that illustrated Gessner s Mithridates, a slim Specimen quinquaginta linguarum which brought forty-eight versions of the prayer together (one of its sources was de Smet s De literis et lingua getarum).

14 The second, the Thesaurus polyglottus vel dictionarium multilingue, also of 1603, is a much bulkier book, a dictionary of nearly 1600 octavo pages, which claims to document forms in about four hundred language varieties, following its Latin headwords with as many synonyms as possible.15 The gure of four hundred is misleading, since a number of the varieties counted are certainly dialects: more than fty of Greek alone. However, the scale of the work is still remarkable: for instance, equivalents for the word pater father are given in sixty languages, and the total number of forms given must be about a hundred thousand.

Different words are glossed with different thoroughness; pater is exceptionally well glossed, for instance, whereas there are fewer equivalents for other kinship terms, no doubt partly because Megiser had forty-eight equivalents for pater ready-made in his Specimen quinquaginta linguarum. What he could achieve depended very much on the materials he had to hand as is, of course, true of all lexicography. For Malagasy, for instance, he had not yet encountered the source that he was later to translate, and could only use a list of twenty words in another Dutch travel narrative, which he may have read in manuscript.

16 The languages catalogued in the Thesaurus polyglottus are classi ed in an introduction, which places them in nine main families: Hebrew (i.e., Semitic), Greek, Latin, Germanic, Slavonic, European (a miscellaneous class including Finnic and Celtic languages, Hungarian and Basque), Asiatic, African and American.

The sheer scope of Megiser s data enabled him to build up a remarkably full and complex picture of the languages of the world at a time when most comparative studies of language were con ned to those of Europe and part of western Asia. When he encountered Malagasy, for instance, he was able to say with con dence that it was related to no known language, and although he was in fact mistaken (it is a member of the same family as Malay, though nobody identi ed it as such until the eighteenth century), that is less important than the fact that he was thinking. For de Smet as a source, see Schulte, Gothica minora: Dritter Artikel 326. See Jones, German lexicography 498 500 (items 832 3). See Grandidier and Grandidier, Collection des ouvrages anciens concernant Madagascar 322.

. 15 14. Polyglot and universal dictionaries comparatively on .net framework barcode standards 128 the basis of a wide knowledge of non-European languages, and that he was one of the rst Europeans to be able to do this.17 Megiser s Specimen and Thesaurus polyglottus were, at one level, restating the point implied by all the polyglot dictionaries: that the peoples of the world all had languages that expressed much the same set of concepts, and that all that was needed for all those peoples to talk to each other was patience and translation.

Just as the dictionarium quattuor linguarum can be compared to the polyglot dictionaries of Rudol ne Prague, so the Thesaurus polyglottus has a place in that milieu, for it was dedicated to Rudolf II. Megiser s use of the Lord s Prayer as a text in the Specimen suggested as Gessner s had done that the speakers of different languages could pray together. The preface to the reader of the Thesaurus polyglottus says that the book began with a project to collect seventy-two languages.

18 The traditional account of the fall of Babel stated that seventy-two languages had been created at the confusion of tongues, and the inference must surely be that Megiser wondered if he could understand, and even reverse, that confusion. He may in part have been actuated by missionary zeal; the title-page of the Specimen proclaims Praise the Lord all ye nations; praise him every people and the introduction to the Malagasy dictionary ends with the hope that the people of Madagascar will be converted to Christianity.19 But he was not just making a handbook for Christian translators: he was offering a very powerful picture of linguistic relationship and diversity.

His Thesaurus polyglottus was annotated by Georg Stiernhielm and Bengt Skytte as Skytte worked on his scheme for a perfect language, and data of his was also used by John Wilkins as he too considered how a perfect language could be made. Readers of Megiser could see more clearly than people had ever done before that human languages could be discussed together, and that a dictionary could be a vast uni ed record of the kinds of human linguistic behaviour. beyond that of any particular countrey or nation: universal dictionaries The multiplicity of languages with which the polyglot lexicographers engaged suggested the desirability of devising a single universal language,.

Megiser, Dictio narium der Madagarischen Sprach 76; for the identi cation of Malagasy and Malay as cognate, see Droixhe, Linguistique et l appel de l histoire 43. Megiser, Thesaurus polyglottus sig.)(4r, and cf.

ibid. sig.)(5r v, quoting Goropius for Clement of Alexandria s rationale for this number.

Megiser, Specimen quinquaginta . . .

linguarum title-page, quoting Psalm 117, Laudate Dominvm omnes gentes: laudate eum omnes populi ; Megiser, Dictionarium der Madagarischen Sprach 78..
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