How to generate, print barcode using .NET, Java sdk library control with example project source code free download:
ADVANCED DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHMS generate, create ansi/aim code 128 none in .net projects ASP.NET } public vo Visual Studio .NET Code 128 Code Set A id HandleReorient(string item) { current.Color = RED; current.

left.color = BLACK; current.right.

color = BLACK; if (parent.color == RED) { grandParent.color = RED; if ((item.

CompareTo(grandParent.element) < 0) ! = (item.CompareTo(parent.

element))) { current = Rotate(item, grandParent); current.color = BLACK; } header.right.

color = BLACK; } } public Node Rotate(string item, Node parent) { if (item.CompareTo(parent.element) < 0) if (item.

CompareTo(parent.left.element) < 0) parent.

left = RotateWithLeftChild(parent.left); else parent.elft = RotateWithRightChild(parent.

left) ; return parent.left; else if (item.CompareTo(parent.

right.element) < 0) parent.right = RotateWithLeftChild(parent.

right); else parent.right = RotateWithRightChild(parent. right); return parent.

right; } public Node RotateWithLeftChild(Node k2) { Node k1 = k2.left; k2.left = k1.

right; k1.right = k2; return k1; }. Skip Lists public Node code128b for .NET RotateWithRightChild(Node k1) { Node k2 = k1.right; k1.

right = k2.left; k2.left = k1; return k2; } }.

Then Handle Reorient method is called whenever a node has two red children. The rotate methods are similar to those used with AVL trees. Also, because dealing with the root node is a special case, the RedBlack class includes a root sentinel node as well as the nullNode node, which indicates the node is a reference to null.

. SKIP LISTS Although AV L trees and red black trees are ef cient data structures for searching and sorting data, the rebalancing operations necessary with both data structures to keep the tree balanced causes a lot of overhead and complexity. There is another data structure we can use, especially for searching, that provides the ef ciency of trees without the worries of rebalancing. This data structure is called a skip list.

. Skip List Fundamentals Skip lists are built from one of the fundamental data structures for searching the linked list. As we know, linked lists are great for insertion and deletion, but not so good at searching, since we have to travel to each node sequentially. But there is no reason why we have to travel each link successively.

When we want to go from the bottom of a set of stairs to the top and we want to get there quickly, what do we do We take the stairs two or three at a time (or more if we re blessed with long legs). We can implement the same strategy in a linked list by creating different levels of links. We start with level 0 links which point to the next node in the list.

Then we have a level 1 link, which points to the second node in the list, skipping one node; a level 2 link, which points to the third node. ADVANCED DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHMS Header 1223 Nothing FIGURE 15.10. Basic Linked List. in the list Code 128B for .NET , skipping two nodes; and so on. When we search for an item, we can start at a high link level and traverse the list until we get to a value that is greater than the value we re looking for.

We can then back up to the previous visited node, and move down to the lowest level, searching node by node until we encounter the searched-for value. To illustrate the difference between a skip list and a linked list, study the diagrams in Figure 15.10 and 15.

11. Let s look at how a search is performed on the level 1 skip list shown in Figure 15.11.

The rst value we ll search for is 1133. Looking at the basic linked list rst, we have to travel to four nodes to nd 1133. Using a skip list, though, we only have to travel to two nodes.

Clearly, using the skip list is more ef cient for such a search. Now let s look at how a search for 1203 is performed with the skip list. The level 1 links are traversed until the value 1223 is found.

This is greater than 1203, so we back up to the node storing the value 1133 and drop down one level and start using level 0 links. The next node is 1203, so the search ends. This example makes the skip list search strategy clear.

Start at the highest link level and traverse the list using those links until you reach a value greater than the value you re searching for. At that point, back up to the last node visited and move down to the next link level and repeat the same steps. Eventually, you will reach the link level that leads you to the searched-for value.

It turns out that we can make the skip list even more ef cient by adding more links. For example, every fourth node can have a link that points four nodes ahead, every sixth node can have a link that points six nodes ahead,.
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