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Compare Description of the Human Body, AT xi. , p. below. using none toinsert none on web,windows application Visual Studio Development Tools and Languages The World none for none and Other Writings some parts also pass out of the veins to nourish some of the bodily parts, but the majority return into the heart, and from there go to the arteries again, in such a way that the movement of the blood in the body is just a perpetual circulation. In addition, there are some parts of the blood that proceed into the spleen, and others to the gall bladder, and, via the spleen and the gall bladder as well as directly from the arteries, there are some parts that re-enter the stomach and the bowels, where they act like aqua fortis, helping in the digestion of food. And because they are carried here from the heart almost instantaneously through the arteries, they are always very hot, which enables their vapours to rise easily through the gullet toward the mouth, where they make up the saliva.

There are also some that ow out as urine through the esh of the kidneys, and as sweat or other excrements through the skin. And through whichever of these places it passes, either the position, shape, or smallness of the pores through which they pass is what alone makes some go through and not others, and keeps the rest of the blood from following, just as you see in various sieves which, being pierced in di erent ways, serve to separate di erent grains from one another. But what must be noted above all at this point is that all the most energetic, strongest, and nest parts of this blood proceed to the cavities of the brain, inasmuch as the arteries bearing them there are in the most direct line from the heart; and as you know, all moving bodies tend as much as they are able to continue their motion in a straight line.

Consider the heart , for example [ g. ], and consider that when the blood is forced from it through the aperture , all its parts tend toward , that is, toward the cavities of the brain; but because the passage is not su ciently large to bear all of them there, the weakest are turned back by the strongest, which in this way proceed there alone. You should also note in passing that the strongest and most energetic parts, other than those which go directly to the brain, go to the vessels destined for reproduction.

For if those that have the force to reach , for example, cannot progress on to , because there is no room for all of them there, they turn instead toward , rather than toward or , in so far as the passage toward is straighter. Beyond this, I could perhaps show you how, from the humour that gathers at , another machine which is similar to this can be formed, but I do not wish to enter further into this matter. As for those parts of the blood that penetrate as far as the brain, they.

The Treatise on Man Fig. serve not only to nourish and sustain its substance, but above all to produce there a certain very ne wind, or rather a very lively and very pure ame, which is called the animal spirits . For it should be noted that the arteries that carry these from the heart, after having divided into countless small branches and having composed the little tissues that are. The World none none and Other Writings stretched out like tapestries at the bottom of the cavities of the brain, come together again around a certain little gland which lies near the middle of the substance of the brain, just at the entrance to its cavities; and those in this region have a large number of small holes through which the nest parts of the blood can ow into this gland, and these are so narrow that they do not allow the larger ones to get past. You should also know that these arteries do not stop there, but being gathered up into a single one, they go straight up and enter that great vessel which, like Euripos,14 bathes the whole external surface of the brain.15 And it must also be noted that the coarsest parts of the blood can lose a lot of their agitation in the twists and turns of the little tissues through which they pass, to the extent that they have the power to push the smaller ones among them and so transfer some of their motion to them; but these smaller ones cannot lose their motion in this way, because the agitation is increased by that which the larger ones transfer to them, and because there are no other bodies around them to which they can transfer theirs with the same ease.

It can be readily appreciated from this, that when the coarsest parts go up straight to the external surface of the brain, where they serve to provide nourishment for its substance, they make the smallest and most agitated parts move out of the way, causing all of them to enter this gland, which we must imagine as a very full- owing spring, and from this they ow at the same time and in every direction into the cavities of the brain. And so, without any preparation or alteration, except being separated from the larger parts and retaining the extreme speed that the heat of the heart has given them, they cease to have the form of blood and are called animal spirits. [Part : How the machine of the body is moved] Now as these spirits enter the cavities of the brain, they also pass in the same proportions from there into the pores of its substance, and from these pores into the nerves.

And depending on which of these nerves they enter, or even merely tend to enter, in varying amounts, they have the. The strait s of Euripos, which separate the island of Euboea from the Greek mainland, had notoriously reversible tidal currents. Compare this with the rather di erent account given in the Description of the Human Body (AT xi. ), pp.

below.. The Treati none none se on Man power to change the shapes of the muscles into which these nerves are embedded, and in this way to move all the limbs. Similarly, you may have observed in the grottoes and fountains in the royal gardens16 that the force that drives the water from its source is all that is needed to move various machines, and even to make them play certain instruments or pronounce certain words, depending on the particular arrangements of the pipes through which the water is conducted. And the nerves of the machine that I am describing can indeed be compared to the pipes in the mechanical parts of these fountains, its muscles and tendons to various other engines and springs which serve to work these mechanical parts, its animal spirits to the water that drives them, the heart with the source of the water, and the brain s cavities with the apertures.

17 Moreover, respiration and similar actions which are normal and natural to this machine, and which depend on the ow of spirits, are like the movements of a clock or mill, which the normal ow of water can make continuous. External objects, which by their mere presence act on the organs of sense and thereby cause them to move in many di erent ways,18 depending on the arrangement of the parts of the brain, are like strangers who on entering the grottoes of these fountains unwittingly cause the movements that take place before their eyes. For they cannot enter without stepping on certain tiles which are arranged in such a way that, for example, if they approach a Diana bathing they will cause her to hide in the reeds, and if they move forward to pursue her they will cause a Neptune to advance and threaten them with his trident; or if they go in another direction they will cause a sea monster to emerge and spew water in their faces; or other such things depending on the whim of the engineers who constructed them.

And nally, when a rational soul is present in this machine it will have its principal seat in the brain and will reside there like the fountaineer, who must be stationed at the tanks to which the fountain s pipes return if he wants to initiate, impede, or in some way alter their movements.19. 18 19. Descartes none for none is almost certainly referring to the Royal Gardens at Saint-Germain-en-Lay, just outside Paris, with fountains designed by the Fancini brothers. The gardens are illustrated and described by Salamon de Caus in Des Raisons des forces mouvantes ( ) and in other contemporary writers. The regards, which I have translated as apertures , are inspection holes made in the machine containing the owing water.

Descartes had begun to describe this process as early as the Rules: see especially Rule . This image of the rational mind comes dangerously close to the idea of the mind as being like a pilot guiding a ship, which Descartes will reject in very rm terms in the Meditations..

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